Tyre Manufacturing

The exponential growth in a number of vehicles every year has made a higher interest for a higher quantity of tyres to be manufactured.

A tyre is adaptable and strong rubber fixated to edge of the metal rim of the wheel. Tyres have a grasping surface to provide footing on the road while absorbing shocks from the uneven road such as potholes. The tyre is fundamentally a cushion that provides us with a comfy ride.

Essentially, tyres can be isolated into two fundamental classes. There are Pneumatic tyres and Solid tyres. 95% of the pneumatic tyres are utilized for general transportation. Other 5% is utilized for horticultural and cultivating purposes. From statistics it’s obvious that pneumatic tyres are most commonly and widely used ones.

In the present age, most of the vehicle have pneumatic tyres. Up to this point, pneumatic tyres had an internal tube to hold the gaseous tension, however now pneumatic have tyres pressure seal with the edge of the wheel, hence making them tubeless.

Pneumatic tyres are produced in around 455 tyre manufacturing plants on the planet. With more than 1 billion tyres manufactured worldwide every year, thus making the tyre business significant purchaser of natural rubber.

Pneumatic tyre assembling procedure is a long procedure, which incorporates various extensive processes. It includes loads ofraw materials that is why the process of tyre manufacturing is delicate and unique in its own way. In general tyre, manufacturing is the process of mixing different compound and curing the mixture under pressure and heat.

Fundamental steps in tyre manufacturing procedure are as follow:

  1. Compounding and mixing
  2. Component preparation
  3. Tyre building
  4. Curing
  5. Final finish& testing

This article portrays the segments of industrial manufacturing required to make a tyre, the different materials utilized, the assembling procedures and apparatus, and the general plan of action. So keep on reading to better understand the manufacturing of tyre.


Scottish scientist Robert Thomson invented the pneumatic tyre with an internal tube in 1845. John Boyd Dunlop, Charles Goodyear, and other honourable visionaries made further developments in the tyre industry.

Charles Goodyear found the way toward fortifying rubber through a process known as vulcanization or curing, unintentionally in 1839. He had been exploring different avenues regarding rubber since 1830 however had been not able to build up a reasonable curing process. During an examination with a mixture of rubber and sulfur, Goodyear dropped the blend on a hot stove. He found out that, rather than liquefying, the mixture had formed a hard irregularity. He proceeded with his trials until he perfected the process of vulcanization.

Component of tyres

Inner liner

The internal liner is an impenetrable layer of the synthetic layer. This layer makes sure that tyre up under high air pressure inside. It works much the same as the inward tube however its product of cutting edge technology.

Carcass Ply

The layer over the inward liner is known as carcass ply. This layer containing dainty material fiber strings sustained into the rubber of the tyre.

These strings help the tyre to bolster the heaviness of the vehicle.

Bead area

This is where the rubber of the tyre holds the metal edge of the metal rim.


Beads are the steel wires that enable tyres to maintain a tight seal for air and water with the metal rim of the wheel while also keeping the tyre fixated on the metal rim.

For typical vehicle there are 8 wires; two for each tyre. Each wire has a very high tensile strength to make sure the tyre maintains its structural integrity even when bearing heavy loads.


It shields the side of the tyre from contact with the street surface. Likewise, specifications concerning the tyre are engraved on the sidewall. For example, speed limit, rim size, aspect ratio, vehicle type, load index, et cetera.

Casing ply

In terms of quality of the tyre, casing ply of the tyre plays an important role. Casing ply contains steel ropes integrated into the rubber of the tyre in order to increase the strength and integrity of the structure of the tyre.

A reliable casing ply ensures that tyre does not deform while taking a sharp turn and does not superfluously expand because of the rotational power. Likewise, it empowers the tyre to absorb distortions brought about by potholes and various obstacles on the road.

Cap ply

Cap ply is integrated with nylon-based strings that are embedded in a layer of rubber and also reinforced around the circumference of the tyre. This fortification increases the security of the structure of the tyre while decreasing chances for tyre deformation.

Crown belts

Crown belt is a strong base upon which tyre tread lies.


Tyre tread covers the contact surface of the tyre. Tyre tread limits the wear & tear while providing traction and handling on the ground. Tyre tread is customized based on the need of the end-user as well as the climate conditions.

Ingredients for tyre

Following are some of the core ingredients used in tyre manufacturing:

  • Antioxidants and antiozonants
  • Carbon Black
  • Halobutyl rubber
  • Natural rubber, or polyisoprene
  • Polybutadiene
  • Silica
  • Steel
  • Styrene-butadiene co-polymer (SBR)
  • Sulphur
  • Textile fabric
  • Vulcanizing Accelerators
  • Zinc oxide (activator)

Tyre manufacturing process

Following is the sketchy step-by-step illustration of the typical manufacturing of the tyre:


  1. The initial phase in the tyre assembling procedure is the proportional mixing of crude materials to shape the rubber compound. At this point all the raw materials are stored, such materials are:
  • Synthetic rubber bales
  • sulfur
  • Other chemicals
  • oils
  • carbon dark

PC control frameworks contain predefined formulas and can consequently allot explicit raw materials for batch mixing in a mixer. The mixer used to mix the mixture is known as Banbury Mixer. A single batch can weigh as much as 1,100 pounds.

  1. The mixture is then re-mixed with extra heat to soften the mixture and blend the synthetic compounds.
  2. The mixture experiences a Banbury mixer once more, in this third phase of mixing additional chemicals are added.

During each of the three stages of blending, the mixture is softened with the help of incrementing head and friction. The compound synthesis of each batch relies upon the part of the tyre that is being manufactured.

  1. Once a batch of the mixture has been prepared, it experiences rolling mill that turns the mixture into thick rubber sheets. Every sheet is then prepared to manufacture various parts of the tyre.

In terms of preparing a sheet for the body of the tyre, a textile fabric is integrated into the sheet of the rubber, thus forming the body of the tyre using a rubberized fabric known as ‘ply ’.

The number of layers depends upon the vehicle type.

  1. Steel wire bundles are then shaped into rings after being formed on the wire-wrapping machine. These rings are then covered with rubber to form beads of the tyre.
  2. In order to prepare the tread and sidewall of the tyre, the rubber mixture is further processed through the machine called extruder. Extruder additionally heats and mixes the mixture, finally extruding the mixture while forming a hard rubber layer.

In terms of the sidewall, the layer is coated with a protective sheet. Whereas in order to form a tread the extruded layer of rubber is cut into strips and stacked into huge, level metal cases commonly known as ‘ books ’.

  1. Tread rubber, sidewall rubber and the rack of beads are assembled by a skilled worker using power tools and glue. The end product at this stage is known as a green tyre.
  2. In terms of curing the tyre, the steam warms the green tyre up to 280 degrees during the curing procedure with the help of a flexible balloon called bladder. Time in the moulding process relies upon the attributes wanted in the tyre.
  3. After the tyre is cured it is then expelled from the mould for cooling and after that testing. Each tyre is investigated for every possible defect.

With the help of a cutting edge technology in the tyre manufacturing industry, the rejection rate of the tyre is one in hundreds. When the tyre has been examined and passes the quality insurance, it is moved to a stockroom for market distribution.

Renowned tyre companies

Following are some of the renowned tyre manufacturing companies and their brands:

Company Name Country Founding Year Company Brands
Zenises  UK 2014 ·         Ardent

·         iLink

·         Kapsen

·         T Tyres

·         Triangle

·         Westlake

·         Z Tyres

PREMIORRI  Ukraine 2012 ·         PREMIORRI
DMACK  UK 2008 ·         DMACK
Omni United  Singapore 2003 ·         Corsa (tires)

·         Goodride(tires)

·         Patriot (tires)

·         Radar Tires

·         RoadLux (tires)

Shanghai Huayi  China 1996 ·         Double Coin (Warrior)
Danang Rubber  Vietnam 1993 ·         DRC
Birla Tyres  India 1991 ·         Birla Tyre
MultistradaArahSarana  Indonesia 1988 ·         Achilles, Corsa
Balkrishna Industries  India 1987 ·         BKT Tires
Pro-Line  USA 1982 ·         Pro-Line
Deestone  Thailand 1977 ·         Deestone

·         Thunderer

Casumina  Vietnam 1976 ·         Casumina

·         Euromina

Triangle Group  China 1976 ·         Diamond back

·         Triangle Group

Shandong Linglong Tire Co., Ltd.  China 1975 ·         GREEN MAX

·         INFINITY

·         LEAO ATLAS

·         Linglong

Bridgestone Sabanci  Turkey 1974 ·         Bridgestone (Europe and the Middle East)

·         Lassa

Apollo Tyres  India 1972 ·         Apollo

·         Apollo Tyres South Africa

·         Kaizen

·         Maloya

·         Regal

·         Vredestein

ROSAVA  Ukraine 1972 ·         ROSAVA
Servis Tyres  Pakistan 1970 ·         Servis
Cheng Shin Rubber  Taiwan 1967 ·         Cheng Shin

·         CST

·         Maxxis

·         Presa

Belshina  Belarus 1965 ·         Belshina
General Tyre Pakistan  Pakistan 1963 ·         General
Kenda Rubber  Taiwan 1962 ·         Kenda

·         Kenda radial

Starco  Denmark 1962 ·         Tusker
Kumho Tires  South Korea 1960 ·         Admiral

·         Kumho

·         Marshal

·         Zetum

Saovang Rubber Company  Vietnam 1960 ·         Saovang
Nankang Rubber  Taiwan 1959 ·         Nankang

·         Sonar

·         Star Performer TNG

CEAT Ltd  India 1958 ·         CEAT
Hangzhou Zhongce  China 1958 ·         Chaoyang

·         CYT

·         Goodride

·          Westlake

·         Yartu

Hoosier Racing Tire  USA 1957 ·         Hoosier
Hutchinson SNC  France 1957 ·         Hutchinson Tires
Federal Corporation  Taiwan 1954 ·         Federal, Hero
Panasonic  Japan 1953 ·         Panaracer
Vittoria  Italy 1953 ·         Vittoria, Geax
Giti  Singapore 1951 ·         Dextero

·         Giti Tire

·         Greatwall

·         GT Radial

·         Hualin

·         Primewell

·         Roadpro

·         Runway

Alliance Tire Company  Israel 1950 ·         Alliance
Madras Rubber Factory  India 1946 ·         MRF Tyres
Toyo Tire & Rubber  Japan 1943 ·         Nitto

·         Silverstone

·         Toyo

Nexen Tire  South Korea 1942 ·         Capitol

·         Nexen

·         Roadstone

Hankook Tire  South Korea 1941 ·         Aurora

·         Hankook

·         Kingstar

·         Laufenn

Bridgestone  Japan 1931 ·         Bridgestone

·         Dayton

·         Fireforce (South Africa)

·         Firestone

·         Fuzion

·         Seiberling (Latin America)

·         Supercat (Australia and New Zealand)

·         Uniroyal (Australia)

Viking  Norway 1931
Stomil-Poznan  Poland 1928 ·         Stomil
Inoue Rubber Co., Ltd.  Japan 1926 ·         IRC Tires
Kesoram  India 1919 ·          AFFINITY

·         Birla

·          KRM

·          Springfield

Carlisle  USA 1917 ·         Carlisle Transportation Products
Cooper Tires  USA 1914 ·         Austone

·         Avon

·         Chengshan

·          Cooper

·          Dean

·         Definity

·          Dick Cepek

·          Eldorado

·          Fortune

·          Hercules

·          Ironman

·         Mastercraft

·          Mentor

·          Mickey Thompson

·         Roadmaster

·         Starfire

Vogue Tyre and Rubber  USA 1914
Yokohama Rubber  Japan 1910 ·         Yokohama
Sumitomo Rubber  Japan 1909 ·          Cordovan

·         Dunlop (Japan, Latin America, Asia and Africa)

·         Falken

·          Goodyear (Japan)

·          Multi-Mile

·         Ohtsu

·          Sigma

·          Solar

·          Sumitomo

·          Vanderbilt

Trelleborg AB  Sweden 1905 ·         Trelleborg
Goodyear  USA 1898 ·         Debica (Poland)

·          Douglas

·          Dunlop (North America, Europe, Australia and New Zealand)

·          Fierce, Fulda

·          Goodyear

·          Kelly

·         Pneumant Tires (PneumantReifen GmbH)

·          Sava (Slovenia)

Nokian Tyres  Finland 1898 ·         Nokian

·         Nordman

Titan Tire Corporation  USA 1890 ·         Continental (farm tires)

·          Goodyear (farm tires)

·          Titan

Michelin Group  France 1889 ·         BFGoodrich

·         Kleber

·         Kormoran (Poland)

·          Michelin

·         Orium

·          Riken

·          Sebring

·         Stomil Olsztyn (Poland)

·         Strial

·          Taurus

·         Tigar Tyres

·          Uniroyal (North America)

J. K. Organisation  India 1888 ·         JK Tyres

·         Tornel

Pirelli  Italy 1872 ·         Agom

·          Courier

·          Formula

·         Metzeler

·          Pirelli

Continental AG  Germany 1871 ·         Ameri*Steel

·         Barum

·         Continental

·         ContiRe

·         ContiTread

·         Euzkadi

·          General Tire

·         Gislaved

·          Hoosier Racing Tire

·         Mabor

·          Matador

·          Point S

·         Semperit

·         Sime Tyres

·         Sportiva

·          Viking

·          Uniroyal (Europe)


Modern cutting edge technology is improving the manufacturing process of tyre day by day. These technological advancements in the tyre industry will ensure safe and fuel economical tyres.

Most importantly, researches have been conducted in the field of tyre manufacturing to ensure the long life of the tyres. Future promises many things for the tyre industry; however, one of the promises coming true these days is the promise of non-pneumatic tyres. These airless tyres will have a longer life and will be puncture-proof and the best part is these tyres are a reality.

Due to advancements in the tyre industry tyre manufacturing might seem totally different in upcoming days.

Johnson Alex

Alex, a seasoned automotive journalist, uses his blog to share his in-depth knowledge about the latest car models. His detailed reviews and technical analysis are valuable resources for auto enthusiasts and potential car buyers.

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