The exponential growth in a number of vehicles every year has made a higher interest for a higher quantity of tyres to be manufactured.
A tyre is adaptable and strong rubber fixated to edge of the metal rim of the wheel. Tyres have a grasping surface to provide footing on the road while absorbing shocks from the uneven road such as potholes. The tyre is fundamentally a cushion that provides us with a comfy ride.
Essentially, tyres can be isolated into two fundamental classes. There are Pneumatic tyres and Solid tyres. 95% of the pneumatic tyres are utilized for general transportation. Other 5% is utilized for horticultural and cultivating purposes. From statistics it’s obvious that pneumatic tyres are most commonly and widely used ones.
In the present age, most of the vehicle have pneumatic tyres. Up to this point, pneumatic tyres had an internal tube to hold the gaseous tension, however now pneumatic have tyres pressure seal with the edge of the wheel, hence making them tubeless.
Pneumatic tyres are produced in around 455 tyre manufacturing plants on the planet. With more than 1 billion tyres manufactured worldwide every year, thus making the tyre business significant purchaser of natural rubber.
Pneumatic tyre assembling procedure is a long procedure, which incorporates various extensive processes. It includes loads ofraw materials that is why the process of tyre manufacturing is delicate and unique in its own way. In general tyre, manufacturing is the process of mixing different compound and curing the mixture under pressure and heat.
Fundamental steps in tyre manufacturing procedure are as follow:
- Compounding and mixing
- Component preparation
- Tyre building
- Final finish& testing
This article portrays the segments of industrial manufacturing required to make a tyre, the different materials utilized, the assembling procedures and apparatus, and the general plan of action. So keep on reading to better understand the manufacturing of tyre.
Scottish scientist Robert Thomson invented the pneumatic tyre with an internal tube in 1845. John Boyd Dunlop, Charles Goodyear, and other honourable visionaries made further developments in the tyre industry.
Charles Goodyear found the way toward fortifying rubber through a process known as vulcanization or curing, unintentionally in 1839. He had been exploring different avenues regarding rubber since 1830 however had been not able to build up a reasonable curing process. During an examination with a mixture of rubber and sulfur, Goodyear dropped the blend on a hot stove. He found out that, rather than liquefying, the mixture had formed a hard irregularity. He proceeded with his trials until he perfected the process of vulcanization.
Component of tyres
The internal liner is an impenetrable layer of the synthetic layer. This layer makes sure that tyre up under high air pressure inside. It works much the same as the inward tube however its product of cutting edge technology.
The layer over the inward liner is known as carcass ply. This layer containing dainty material fiber strings sustained into the rubber of the tyre.
These strings help the tyre to bolster the heaviness of the vehicle.
This is where the rubber of the tyre holds the metal edge of the metal rim.
Beads are the steel wires that enable tyres to maintain a tight seal for air and water with the metal rim of the wheel while also keeping the tyre fixated on the metal rim.
For typical vehicle there are 8 wires; two for each tyre. Each wire has a very high tensile strength to make sure the tyre maintains its structural integrity even when bearing heavy loads.
It shields the side of the tyre from contact with the street surface. Likewise, specifications concerning the tyre are engraved on the sidewall. For example, speed limit, rim size, aspect ratio, vehicle type, load index, et cetera.
In terms of quality of the tyre, casing ply of the tyre plays an important role. Casing ply contains steel ropes integrated into the rubber of the tyre in order to increase the strength and integrity of the structure of the tyre.
A reliable casing ply ensures that tyre does not deform while taking a sharp turn and does not superfluously expand because of the rotational power. Likewise, it empowers the tyre to absorb distortions brought about by potholes and various obstacles on the road.
Cap ply is integrated with nylon-based strings that are embedded in a layer of rubber and also reinforced around the circumference of the tyre. This fortification increases the security of the structure of the tyre while decreasing chances for tyre deformation.
Crown belt is a strong base upon which tyre tread lies.
Tyre tread covers the contact surface of the tyre. Tyre tread limits the wear & tear while providing traction and handling on the ground. Tyre tread is customized based on the need of the end-user as well as the climate conditions.
Ingredients for tyre
Following are some of the core ingredients used in tyre manufacturing:
- Antioxidants and antiozonants
- Carbon Black
- Halobutyl rubber
- Natural rubber, or polyisoprene
- Styrene-butadiene co-polymer (SBR)
- Textile fabric
- Vulcanizing Accelerators
- Zinc oxide (activator)
Tyre manufacturing process
Following is the sketchy step-by-step illustration of the typical manufacturing of the tyre:
- The initial phase in the tyre assembling procedure is the proportional mixing of crude materials to shape the rubber compound. At this point all the raw materials are stored, such materials are:
- Synthetic rubber bales
- Other chemicals
- carbon dark
PC control frameworks contain predefined formulas and can consequently allot explicit raw materials for batch mixing in a mixer. The mixer used to mix the mixture is known as Banbury Mixer. A single batch can weigh as much as 1,100 pounds.
- The mixture is then re-mixed with extra heat to soften the mixture and blend the synthetic compounds.
- The mixture experiences a Banbury mixer once more, in this third phase of mixing additional chemicals are added.
During each of the three stages of blending, the mixture is softened with the help of incrementing head and friction. The compound synthesis of each batch relies upon the part of the tyre that is being manufactured.
- Once a batch of the mixture has been prepared, it experiences rolling mill that turns the mixture into thick rubber sheets. Every sheet is then prepared to manufacture various parts of the tyre.
In terms of preparing a sheet for the body of the tyre, a textile fabric is integrated into the sheet of the rubber, thus forming the body of the tyre using a rubberized fabric known as ‘ply ’.
The number of layers depends upon the vehicle type.
- Steel wire bundles are then shaped into rings after being formed on the wire-wrapping machine. These rings are then covered with rubber to form beads of the tyre.
- In order to prepare the tread and sidewall of the tyre, the rubber mixture is further processed through the machine called extruder. Extruder additionally heats and mixes the mixture, finally extruding the mixture while forming a hard rubber layer.
In terms of the sidewall, the layer is coated with a protective sheet. Whereas in order to form a tread the extruded layer of rubber is cut into strips and stacked into huge, level metal cases commonly known as ‘ books ’.
- Tread rubber, sidewall rubber and the rack of beads are assembled by a skilled worker using power tools and glue. The end product at this stage is known as a green tyre.
- In terms of curing the tyre, the steam warms the green tyre up to 280 degrees during the curing procedure with the help of a flexible balloon called bladder. Time in the moulding process relies upon the attributes wanted in the tyre.
- After the tyre is cured it is then expelled from the mould for cooling and after that testing. Each tyre is investigated for every possible defect.
With the help of a cutting edge technology in the tyre manufacturing industry, the rejection rate of the tyre is one in hundreds. When the tyre has been examined and passes the quality insurance, it is moved to a stockroom for market distribution.
Renowned tyre companies
Following are some of the renowned tyre manufacturing companies and their brands:
|Company Name||Country||Founding Year||Company Brands|
· T Tyres
· Z Tyres
|Omni United||Singapore||2003||· Corsa (tires)
· Patriot (tires)
· Radar Tires
· RoadLux (tires)
|Shanghai Huayi||China||1996||· Double Coin (Warrior)|
|Danang Rubber||Vietnam||1993||· DRC|
|Birla Tyres||India||1991||· Birla Tyre|
|MultistradaArahSarana||Indonesia||1988||· Achilles, Corsa|
|Balkrishna Industries||India||1987||· BKT Tires|
|Triangle Group||China||1976||· Diamond back
· Triangle Group
|Shandong Linglong Tire Co., Ltd.||China||1975||· GREEN MAX
· LEAO ATLAS
|Bridgestone Sabanci||Turkey||1974||· Bridgestone (Europe and the Middle East)
|Apollo Tyres||India||1972||· Apollo
· Apollo Tyres South Africa
|Servis Tyres||Pakistan||1970||· Servis|
|Cheng Shin Rubber||Taiwan||1967||· Cheng Shin
|General Tyre Pakistan||Pakistan||1963||· General|
|Kenda Rubber||Taiwan||1962||· Kenda
· Kenda radial
|Kumho Tires||South Korea||1960||· Admiral
|Saovang Rubber Company||Vietnam||1960||· Saovang|
|Nankang Rubber||Taiwan||1959||· Nankang
· Star Performer TNG
|CEAT Ltd||India||1958||· CEAT|
|Hangzhou Zhongce||China||1958||· Chaoyang
|Hoosier Racing Tire||USA||1957||· Hoosier|
|Hutchinson SNC||France||1957||· Hutchinson Tires|
|Federal Corporation||Taiwan||1954||· Federal, Hero|
|Vittoria||Italy||1953||· Vittoria, Geax|
· Giti Tire
· GT Radial
|Alliance Tire Company||Israel||1950||· Alliance|
|Madras Rubber Factory||India||1946||· MRF Tyres|
|Toyo Tire & Rubber||Japan||1943||· Nitto
|Nexen Tire||South Korea||1942||· Capitol
|Hankook Tire||South Korea||1941||· Aurora
· Fireforce (South Africa)
· Seiberling (Latin America)
· Supercat (Australia and New Zealand)
· Uniroyal (Australia)
|Inoue Rubber Co., Ltd.||Japan||1926||· IRC Tires|
|Carlisle||USA||1917||· Carlisle Transportation Products|
|Cooper Tires||USA||1914||· Austone
· Dick Cepek
· Mickey Thompson
|Vogue Tyre and Rubber||USA||1914|
|Yokohama Rubber||Japan||1910||· Yokohama|
|Sumitomo Rubber||Japan||1909||· Cordovan
· Dunlop (Japan, Latin America, Asia and Africa)
· Goodyear (Japan)
|Trelleborg AB||Sweden||1905||· Trelleborg|
|Goodyear||USA||1898||· Debica (Poland)
· Dunlop (North America, Europe, Australia and New Zealand)
· Fierce, Fulda
· Pneumant Tires (PneumantReifen GmbH)
· Sava (Slovenia)
|Nokian Tyres||Finland||1898||· Nokian
|Titan Tire Corporation||USA||1890||· Continental (farm tires)
· Goodyear (farm tires)
|Michelin Group||France||1889||· BFGoodrich
· Kormoran (Poland)
· Stomil Olsztyn (Poland)
· Tigar Tyres
· Uniroyal (North America)
|J. K. Organisation||India||1888||· JK Tyres
|Continental AG||Germany||1871||· Ameri*Steel
· General Tire
· Hoosier Racing Tire
· Point S
· Sime Tyres
· Uniroyal (Europe)
Modern cutting edge technology is improving the manufacturing process of tyre day by day. These technological advancements in the tyre industry will ensure safe and fuel economical tyres.
Most importantly, researches have been conducted in the field of tyre manufacturing to ensure the long life of the tyres. Future promises many things for the tyre industry; however, one of the promises coming true these days is the promise of non-pneumatic tyres. These airless tyres will have a longer life and will be puncture-proof and the best part is these tyres are a reality.
Due to advancements in the tyre industry tyre manufacturing might seem totally different in upcoming days.